1. 338 BC Battle of Chaeronea – Macedonians under Philip II defeat Greeks
    1. Ends political independence of polis
    2. Replaces democracy with monarchy
  2. Alexander III
    1. 334 BC conquers cities of Asia Minor; cuts Gordian Knot
    2. 333 BC defeats Darius at Issus; gains control of Egypt and Phoenicia
    3. 331 BC decisively defeats Darius at Gaugamela; gains control of Persian Empire
    4. 323 dies; empire stretches from GREECE to INDIA

                                                               i.      Greece and Macedonia to Antigonos (Antigonids)

                                                             ii.      Persia and Babylonia to Seleucos (Seleucids)

                                                            iii.      Egypt to Ptolemy Soter (Ptolemies)

  1. Hellenistic World
    1. 300 years between reigns of Alexander the Great and Caesar Augustus
    2. Influence of East on Hellenistic Culture

                                                               i.      Political – absolutism, emperor worship

                                                             ii.      Religious – mystery cults – resurrection and personal salvation

    1. “The civilization of the Ancient Greeks was the fountainhead of Western culture.”

                                                               i.      Philosophers – Aristotle, Plato, Socrates

                                                             ii.      Literature – Greek drama and poetry

                                                            iii.      Art – emphasis on harmony, proportion – “Man the measure of all things”

                                                           iv.      Science – emphasis on rational thought

                                                             v.      Politics – democracy, rights and duties of citizens

    1. Rulers of the Hellenistic period spread these ideas eastward; added concept of universal community with one language, one culture, one ruler

                                                               i.      Common language – Koine

                                                             ii.      Urban culture

1.      Markets for agricultural produce

2.      Commercial exchange

3.      Centers for Hellenism

    1. Alexandria, Egypt

                                                               i.      Library and Museum

                                                             ii.      Center for Science

1.      Euclid, Elements

2.      Archimedes

a.       Archimedean screw

b.      King Hieron’s crown

3.      Herophilos, anatomy

4.      Erasistratos, causes of death

5.      Aristarchus, heliocentric theory

6.      Eratosthenes, circumference of earth

7.      Ptolemy, planetary motions, sun and moon

    1. Athens, Greece     Center for Philosophy

                                                               i.      Garden of Epicureans       Epicurus – purpose of life was happiness (pleasure)

                                                             ii.      Porch of Stoics (Stoa Poikile)     Zeno – purpose of life was to live in accordance with nature (God’s will)

    1. Hellenistic Philosophers: Stoics, Epicureans, Skeptics, Cynics     Seeking Tranquility

                                                               i.      Stoics (closest to Socrates, Plato and Aristotle):

1.      Philosophers

a.       Zeno of Citium (c. 250 BC)

b.      Chrysippus (c. 220 BC)

c.       Seneca (c. 50 AD)

d.      Epictetus (c. 80 AD)

2.      Philosophy

a.       Virtue through reason

                                                                                                                                       i.      Four natures: tree, animal, man and God

                                                                                                                                     ii.      Man and God are rational

                                                                                                                                    iii.      God is perfect by nature

                                                                                                                                   iv.      Man should practice to be as God-like as possible

b.      Fate – Man does not have free will; he is compelled to follow what is destined, so he should embrace fate and not struggle against it

c.       Gods

                                                                                                                                       i.      Not anthropomorphic

                                                                                                                                     ii.      God is perfect rational principle; thus evil does not exist

d.      Wise man or Sage

                                                                                                                                       i.      Model for life

                                                                                                                                     ii.      Does nothing he could regret; does everything honorably, consistently, seriously and rightly

                                                                                                                                    iii.      Is not surprised by anything since he can’t know the future

                                                             ii.      Epicureans

1.      Philosophers

a.       Epicurus (300 BC)

b.      Lucretius (c. 60 BC)

2.      Philosophy

a.       Virtually antagonistic to Stoicism

b.      Tetrapharmakos (Fourfold Cure)

                                                                                                                                       i.      Don’t fear God

                                                                                                                                     ii.      Don’t worry about death

                                                                                                                                    iii.      What is good is easy to get

                                                                                                                                   iv.      What is terrible is easy to endure

c.       Pleasure (absence of pain)      Virtue = obtaining pleasure

d.      Free Will       Fate does not exist                                                             

e.       Gods      They exist but don’t rule the world

f.        Death

                                                                                                                                       i.      Simply the absence of sensation

                                                                                                                                     ii.      World filled with atoms and void

                                                                                                                                    iii.      There is no better place; “all good and evil lie in sensation”

                                                            iii.      Skeptics

1.      Academic (dogmatic) Skeptics

a.       Philosophers

                                                                                                                                       i.      Arcesilaus (c. 290 BC)

                                                                                                                                     ii.      Carneades (c. 140 BC)

b.      Philosophy

                                                                                                                                       i.      The only thing they know is that the world is unknowable

                                                                                                                                     ii.      Tranquility = accepting you don’t know anything

2.      Pyrrhonian (living) Skeptics

a.       Philosophers

                                                                                                                                       i.      Pyrrho of Elis (c. 320 BC)

                                                                                                                                     ii.      Sextus Empiricus (c. 190 AD)

b.      Philosophy

                                                                                                                                       i.      Equally opposed arguments result in

                                                                                                                                     ii.      Suspended judgment – nothing is good or bad by nature - resulting in

                                                                                                                                    iii.      Tranquility

                                                                                                                                   iv.      Following appearance: requirements of daily life

1.      Guidance of nature

2.      Compulsion of the feelings

3.      The tradition of laws and customs

4.      The instruction of the arts

                                                           iv.      Cynics

1.      Virtue through self-sufficiency

2.      Thwarted customs which trained people away from self-sufficiency