THE CHURCH IN THE MIDDLE AGES

  1. Religion permeated every aspect of medieval life
    1. Goal in life asalvation
    2. Identification aChristendom
    3. Social organization aThree Estates

                                                               i.      Clergy pray

                                                             ii.      Nobility fight

                                                            iii.      Commons work

  1. Christianity adapted barbarian and Roman customs
    1. Barbarians

                                                               i.      Religious explanation of supernatural

                                                             ii.      Penance - punishment undergone in token of penitence/sorrow for sin e.g., hair shirts, flagellation, pilgrimage

    1. Romans

                                                               i.      Mixture of religion, politics, business

                                                             ii.      Parish smallest unit in church

1.      Church built by local lord

2.      Tithe = 1/10 of produce of manor

3.      Glebe village land reserved for the church

                                                            iii.      Diocese

1.      Basic unit of church, home of bishop, centered in town or city

2.      Close connection with feudal institutions

                                                           iv.      Bishop of Rome or Pope

1.      Most important of bishops in Western Europe

2.      Petrine supremacy Matthew 16:18

    1. 5th c. Christian Church headed by five patriarchs Bishops of Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem
    2. Influence of Pope 5th century a

                                                               i.      Departure of emperor to Constantinople

                                                             ii.      Missionary efforts

                                                            iii.      Separation of church into Eastern and Western halves(1054 official break)

    1. Pope Gregory I (ruled 590-604)

                                                               i.      Theology penance/purgatory/indulgences

                                                             ii.      Liturgy Gregorian chants

                                                            iii.      Sponsored Benedictine monks

                                                           iv.      Monasteries

1.      Agricultural colonies

2.      Centers of learning

3.      Emphasized obedience to pope

    1. Crusades

                                                               i.      1091 Emperor Alexius I of Byzantine Empire requested help of Pope Urban II

                                                             ii.      1096 First Crusade

                                                            iii.      Motives?

1.      Religious win Holy Land for Christians, indulgences for sins

2.      Political Win Eastern Europe from Greek Orthodox

3.      Economic acquire land and loot from infidel