Treaty of Winchester (1153)
- signed between factions of Matilda and Stephen
- established hereditary principle for monarchy
- declared Matilda’s son, Henry of Anjou, man with the best hereditary claim

Henry II (1154-89)
- French possessions exceeded those of French monarch
- son of Jeffrey of Anjou; husband of Eleanor of Acquitane
- developed system of government that could function without king
(son Richard I (1189-99) spent only five months of reign in England)
- restored public order
        destroyed castles erected without royal permission
        1166 Assize of Clarendon introduced grand jury
            royal court in each shire heard indictments and judged offenders
            individuals encouraged to bring civil cases to Court of Common Pleas
            itinerant justices brought king’s justice to the people
            feudal holders of courts often resented the royal extension of justice
        1170 Inquest of Sheriffs
            sheriffs dismissed and replaced by officials trained in Exchequer
        1164 Constitutions of Clarendon
            no judicial appeals to Rome
            bishops and abbots to do homage to king before consecration
            clerks convicted in ecclesiastical courts subject to royal punishment

Church v. State
- Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Becket, denounced Constitutions of Clarendon
- 1170 Becket murdered by four of Henry’s knights
- Henry forced to do penance and renounce royal jurisdiction over criminal clerics

King v. Lords
- Richard I (1189-99) spent most of reign in Holy Land
        campaigns supported by taxes on land and movables and feudal aids
        sheriffdoms sold to highest bidder (story of London)
- John (1199-1216) managed to lose much of Northern France (including Normandy) to the French king
        feudal custom of scutage turned into a regular tax (eleven in fifteen years)
        sold wardships for outrageous fees
        raised price of customary feudal dues
        1215 barons revolted and forced John to sign Magna Carta
            limited abuse of feudal practices
            defined vague feudal relationships
            forbade king from raising customary fees and rents
- Successive kings granted money in return for confirmations of Magna Carta (principle of consent to taxation eventually developed)
- Henry III (1216-72) inherited as child; first real test of primogeniture
        affairs while minor dealt with by barons in council
        1227 announced he would chose own officials
        1258 Henry made alliance with Pope against the Germans in Italy
            his son would be King of Sicily,
            barons forced Henry to concede Provisions of Oxford
                national affairs into hands of Council of fifteen nobles (earls)
                controlled by assembly (parliament) of twelve barons
                sheriffs to be local men of property,
                appointed annually and paid  salary by king
N.B. First real constitutional document in English history - supplied machinery for conduct of central government

Origins of Parliament
- Edward I (1272-1307) gave lords more secure control over lands and more disciplinary power over officials
        military policies were expensive
            1290 on at war in Wales, in Scotland, in Flanders
            need for money and political support led to development of parliament
- Beginning in 1240's judges postponed difficult law cases to law terms
        could discuss colleagues and royal council
        parliaments (discussions) took place three to four times per year
        citizens took advantage of meetings to petition king for justice
        kings used sessions to advantage
                summoned representatives from shires to consent to taxation
                first such summons issued by Henry III in 1254
                Edward and advisors developed writ of summons
                (bound communities to act on promises of representatives)

King, Lords, and Commons
- Edward II (1307-27) was disaster as king
        1327 magnates deposed and murdered him
        replaced him with fifteen-year old son
- Edward III (1327-77) led nobility against French in Hundred Years War
        English victories at Crecy and capture of Calais brought loot and ransoms
        great expansion in woolen cloth trade
        (tax on wool paid for military expenses)
- Richard II (1377-99) inherited throne as child
        1379 advisors recommended poll taxes in 1379
        led to Peasants’ Revolt of 1381
        king later resorted to forced loans
        demanded sealed "blank charters" from offenders
        disinherited Henry, Duke of Lancaster, son of John of Gaunt
        1399 Henry forcibly recovered lands, dethroned Richard II, and
        proclaimed himself Henry IV
Dominant Themes
Who should run the government?
Who should pay for it?