James II (ruled 1685-88)
-least successful of Stuarts
-upheld divine right of kings; took opposition to policies personally
-attempted to return C of E to Rome.
    1673 Test Act
    resigned as Lord High Admiral
    marriage to Mary of Modena
    Parliament refused grant to Charles

Exclusion Crisis of 1678-81
-set off by "Popish Plot" (Jesuits would kill Charles II and place James on throne)
-led to legislation to exclude James from throne
    introduced by Anthony Ashley Cooper, Earl of Shaftesbury,
    and supporters, known as Whigs
    Charles dissolved parliament
    moved parliament to royalist Oxford
-Whigs opposed by Sir Thomas Osborne, Earl of Danby, and Tories
-court party based on union of crown and church.
-Whigs failed to exclude James
    1)disagreed on successor (Mary/Duke of Monmouth?)
    2)feared civil war
-Shaftesbury arrested for treason
-other Whigs implicated in Rye House Plot
-Charles reorganized local government: Whigs replaced by Tories
-clergy preached sinfulness of resistance

James II’s Reign
-succeeded peacefully in February 1685
-believed Catholic king never safe
-June 1685, 6000 peasants supported rebellion led by Duke of Monmouth
    quickly routed
    dealt with harshly (“Bloody Assizes”)
    Judge Jeffreys condemned 300 to death
    sold 800 more into slavery in the West Indies
-used rebellion as excuse
    to increase size of army
    to appoint RCs to positions in military and government
    to move the Anglican Church closer to the Roman Catholic
        Henry Compton, Bishop of London, suspended
        V-C of Cambridge dismissed for refusing degree to monk
        25 fellows of Magdalen College, Oxford, expelled for refusing to
        elect Catholic president
        transformed Magdalen into Catholic seminary.
-sent envoys to Mary and Anne asking them to convert
-turned to the Whigs (thought ties with Dissenters made receptive to toleration)
    April 1687 Declaration of Indulgence gave Disssenters and Catholics
    full religious freedom
    Archbishop of Canterbury, William Sancroft, and six other bishops
    imprisoned when protested its illegality

“Protestantism and Liberty”
-10 June 1688 son born to James and Mary baptized into RC faith
-7 prominent Englishmen sent invitation to William, Prince of Orange, and wife Mary to come to England to defend "Protestantism and Liberty"
    fearful of Catholic dynasty
    James Edward was “warming pan” baby
-November 1688 William and Mary landed in England
    ships powered by  “Protestant Wind”
    James fled London and took refuge in France
    60 peers and 300 former members of H of C invited William and Mary
    to take over
    Convention Parliament called for February 1689

Glorious Revolution
-William asked to issue writs for a Convention Parliament to draw up settlement for English church and state
-declared that James had abdicated and throne was vacant
-offered joint crown to William and Mary
-accepted parliamentary limitations on sovereignty
-resulted in the establishment of a limited or constitutional monarchy
Declaration of Rights (later Bill of Rights)
-guaranteed freedom of speech, freedom of elections, parliamentary approval of taxation, and the right to petition
-forbade cruel and unusual punishment, standing armies, suspension of the law, and due process
-stated that no Catholic could succeed to throne of England

Claim of Right
-Scottish Estates approved a similar document in April 1689
-stated that no Catholic could succeed to throne of Scotland
-established Presbyterianism as the Church of Scotland and maintained Scottish legal system

Other Consequences of Glorious Revolution
-Mutiny Act in 1689 limited royal use of martial law to one year
-Toleration Act of 1689 gave freedom of worship to Dissenters but kept Test and Corporation Acts and the penal laws against Catholics
-England involved more in continental warfare
    Nine Years’ War (1688-97) instigated by Louis XIV's provision of
    men, money, and ships to James II
    sailed to Ireland to recover the throne of England
    defeated by William 1690 Battle of the Boyne
    legislation reduced RCs to virtual slavery:
        could not hold office, sit in parliament, vote in elections,
        serve on jury, practice law, teach school, purchase land,
        or own horse worth more than £5
        N.B. Scots fared better: Presbyterianism recognized as C of Scotland
    Annual parliaments and new sources of revenue needed
        1693 permanent national debt
        1694 Bank of England
    Victories in the War of Spanish Succession (1702-13) established
    England as major force in continental politics

Act of Settlement of 1701
-caused by Mary's death in 1694, William’s failure to remarry, and Anne's loss of only surviving child, Duke of Gloucester in 1700
-succession would pass to Anne upon William’s death and then to Princess Sophia of Hanover and heirs
-ruler must be practicing Anglican
-could not leave England without the consent of parliament
-England not automatically obliged to defend ruler's foreign territories
-office holding closed to foreigners
-all ministerial decisions made in Privy Council and properly minuted

Social Contract Theory of Government
-Bill of Rights, Toleration Act, Mutiny Act, Triennial Act, and Act of Settlement political embodiments of John Locke's social contract theory of government
-government was agreement between ruled and ruler for the purpose of protecting life, liberty, and property
-premise of Treatise on Government radical: Revolution ultimate safeguard of the law