RENAISSANCE HUMANISM

  1. Disillusionment with feudalism and church
    1. Peasant revolts

                                                               i.      Jacquerie – France

                                                             ii.      Peasants – England

                                                            iii.      Ciompi – Italy

    1. Heresies

                                                               i.      Meister Eckhart (1260 – 1327)

                                                             ii.      John Wyclif (1330 – 84)

                                                            iii.      John Huss (1369 – 1415)

  1. Culture of LMA also seen as protest against medieval assumptions/styles
  2. Renaissance (rebirth)
    1. Italy (1300 – 1500) or Western Europe (LMA)
    2. Interest in classics, individualism, secularism, reason
  3. High Middle Ages (HMA)
    1. Growth of secular education (universities)
    2. Scholastics – classical writers relevant for study of scriptures; Reason could prove Christian principles
    3. 7 Liberal Arts

                                                               i.      Trivium – grammar, rhetoric, logic

                                                             ii.      Quadrivium – arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music

    1. Disputation (rhetoric and logic) main teaching tool
  1. Italy  Francesco Petrarca (Petrarch) 1304 – 74 - felt classics had contemporary relevance medieval scholars had ignored
  2. Studia Humanitatis
    1. 15th Century – New Liberal Arts

                                                               i.      Grammar – ancient Latin and Greek

1.      Study of philology

2.      Textual criticism

3.      Valla, 15th Century scholar – “Donation of Constantine” (forgery)

                                                             ii.      History – accepted past on own terms

1.      Showed ability of man to triumph over fate

2.      Suggested solutions for contemporary problems

                                                            iii.      Rhetoric – practical and useful modes of eloquence

                                                           iv.      Moral Philosophy – a serious author was moral teacher

1.      Vergerio (1249 – 1420) defined Liberal Arts as studies “worthy of a free man”

2.      Helped men “attain and practice virtue” (Civic Humanism)

                                                             v.      Poetry – gave eloquence to convince men to do good                   Mirandola (1463 – 93) “Oration on the Dignity of Man”

http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/med/oration.html

    1. Ideal Renaissance man/woman (From Book of the Courtier)