Between 1480s and 1600, European conception of globe changes.


a.     The Great Discoveries

                                                             i.      Portuguese – Cape of Good Hope, 1488; India, 1498; g China, Japan

                                                          ii.      Spanish – West Indies, 1492; Pacific Ocean, 1513

                                                       iii.      French, English, Dutch followed suit

b.     Why?

                                                             i.      Economic – Demand for precious metals and spices g search for alternative routes to Far East


Jerusalem Map





                                      Ptolemaic Map         




                                                          ii.      Technology        

1.    Portuguese caravel: guns below deck – could fight from a distance

2.    Astrolabe, compass

3.    Pilotage/Navigation

                                                       iii.      Psychology – classical quest for human achievement

1.    Individualism

2.    Secularism

                                                        iv.      Religion

1.    Crusading impulse – God, Gold, Glory

a.     Columbus, Diario

b.     Diaz: “to serve God and His majesty; to give light to those who were in darkness, and to grow rich as all men desire to do.”

c.     Cortez and the conquest of Mexico

c.     Impact? Overseas Exploration  gCommercial Revolution

                                                             i.      Commerce expanded from Mediterranean to Seven Seas

                                                          ii.      Imports of spices, tobacco, molasses, rum, cocoa, chocolate, quinine, ivory, coffee, rice, cotton

                                                       iii.      Influx of silver from Mexico, Bolivia, and Peru ginflation

                                                        iv.      New forms of business organization: regulated company, joint-stock company

                                                           v.      Growth of capitalism (system of production, distribution and exchange in which accumulated wealth is invested by private owners for profit)

                                                        vi.      Development of mercantilism (political and economic system which sought to secure a nation’s wealth over other states by accumulation of precious metals and by maintenance of favorable balance of trade)